Protein

Protein (e.g. meat, poultry, fish, eggs, Greek yogurt), forms the building blocks for your cells. You need it for repair and to build new muscle tissue.

Protein’s main function is to build and repair body tissues and structures.

This plan recommends a high protein intake, this is because when you train your muscles, you’re simultaneously damaging and breaking down muscle tissue and beginning a process known as protein synthesis whereby the body creates new muscle proteins to replace and add to the damaged tissues.

This is why exercise- resistance training in particular, increases the protein needs of the body, and why a high-protein diet helps you build more muscle and strength. Animal-based proteins like meat, fish, eggs, and dairy are great sources of protein as they contain high but balanced amounts of essential amino acids, plant-based proteins such as quinoa and beans also contribute and play an important role in the diet.

1 gram of Protein roughly contains four Calories.

Definition

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, including catalyzing metabolic reactionsDNA replicationresponding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another.

Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity.

A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20-30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides.

Once formed, proteins only exist for a certain period of time and are then degraded and recycled by the cell's machinery through the process of protein turnover. A protein's lifespan is measured in terms of its half-life and covers a wide range. They can exist for minutes or years with an average lifespan of 1–2 days in mammalian cells. Abnormal and or misfolded proteins are degraded more rapidly either due to being targeted for destruction or due to being unstable.

Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids, proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells. Many proteins are enzymes that catalyze biochemical reactions and are vital to metabolism.

Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as actin and myosin in muscle and the proteins in the cytoskeleton, which form a system of scaffolding that maintains cell shape. Other proteins are important in cell signalingimmune responsescell adhesion, and the cell cycle. 

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